Publications By Year                                                                                          


Dale VH, Kline KL, Richard TL, Karlen DL, Belden WW (In press) Bridging Biofuel Sustainability Indicators and Ecosystem Services through Stakeholder Engagement. Biomass and Bioenergy. View Here

Dale VH, Parish ES, Kline KL, Tobin E (2017) How is wood-based pellet production affecting forest conditions in the southeastern United States? Forest Ecology and Management 396: 143-149. View Here

Dale VH, KL Kline, ES Parish, AL Cowie, R Emory, RW Malmsheimer, R Slade, CT Smith, TB Wigley, NS Bentsen, G Berndes, P Bernier, M Brandão, H Chum, R Diaz-Chavez, G Egnell, L Gustavsson, J Schweinle, I Stupak, P Trianosky, A Walter, C Whittaker, M Brown, G Chescheir, I Dimitriou, C Donnison, A Goss Eng, KP Hoyt, JC Jenkins, K Johnson, CA Levesque, V Lockhart, MC Negri, JE Nettles, M Wellisch (2017) Status and prospects for renewable energy using wood pellets from the southeastern United States. GCB Bioenergy View Here

Dale VH and KL Kline. 2017. Interactive Posters: A valuable means for enhancing communication and learning about productive paths toward sustainable bioenergy. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. View Here

Dale VH, KL Kline, ES Parish, AL Cowie, R Emory, RW Malmsheimer, R Slade, CT Smith, TB Wigley, NS Bentsen, G Berndes, P Bernier, M Brandão, H Chum, R Diaz-Chavez, G Egnell, L Gustavsson, J Schweinle, I Stupak, P Trianosky, A Walter, C Whittaker, M Brown, G Chescheir, I Dimitriou, C Donnison, A Goss Eng, KP Hoyt, JC Jenkins, K Johnson, CA Levesque, V Lockhart, MC Negri, JE Nettles, M Wellisch (2017) Status and prospects for renewable energy using wood pellets from the southeastern United States. GCB Bioenergy doi: 10.1111/gcbb.12445. View Here

Duden AS, PA Verweij, HM Junginger, RC Abt, JD Henderson, VH Dale, KL Kline, D Karssenberg, JA Verstegen, APC Faaij, F van der Hilst (2017) Modelling the impacts of wood pellet demand on forest dynamics in southeastern United States. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining. View Here

Efroymson RA, VH Dale, MH Langholtz. 2017. Socioeconomic indicators for sustainable design and commercial development of algal biofuel systems. GCB Bioenergy 9:1005-1023, doi: 10.1111/gcbb.12359. View Here

Fritsche, UR, G Berndes, AL Cowie, VH Dale, KL Kline, FX Johnson, H Langeveld, N Sharma, H Watson, J Woods (2017) Energy and land use. Working Paper for the UNCCD Global Land Outlook. Prepared for UNCCD and IRENA. View Here

Hanssen SV, Duden AS, Junginger HM, Dale VH, van der Hilst F (2017) Wood pellets, what else? Greenhouse gas parity times of European electricity from wood pellets that are produced in the south-eastern United States using different softwood feedstocks. GCB Bioenergy. View Here

Parish ES, Dale VH, Kline KL (2017) Has pellet production affected SE US forests? World Biomass. DCM Productions, United Kingdom. Pages 38-42. View Here

Parish ES, Dale VH, Kline KL Abt RC (2017) Reference scenarios for evaluating wood pellet production in the Southeastern United States. WIREs Energy and Environment. e259. doi: 10.1002/wene.259. View Here

Parish, ES, Dale VH, Tobin E, Kline KL 2017. Dataset of timberland variables used to assess forest conditions in two Southeastern United States’ fuelsheds. Data in Brief 13: 278–290. View Here

Souza G, Ballester MVR, Cruz CHB, Chum H, Dale B, Dale VH, Fernandes E, Foust T, Karp A, Lynd L, Maciel R, Milanez A, Nigro F, Osseweijer P, Verdade L, Victoria R, Van Der Wielen L (2017) The role of bioenergy in a climate-changing world. Environmental Development 23:57-64. View Here


Dale VH, KL Kline, MA Buford, TA Volk, CT Smith, I Stupak. 2016. Incorporating bioenergy into sustainable landscape designs. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 56:1158-1171. View Here

Dale VH, Parish ES, Kline KL. 2016. Lessons from the forest. Pages 18-22 in World Biomass. DCM Productions, United Kingdom. View Here 

Efroymson RA, Dale VH and Langholtz MW (2016). Socioeconomic indicators for sustainable production and use of algal biofuels. GCB Bioenergy. DOI: 10.1111/gcbb.12359

Efroymson RA, Kline KL, Angelsen A, Verburg PH, Dale VH, Langeveld JWA, McBride A (2016) A causal analysis framework for land-use change and the potential role of bioenergy policy. Land Use Policy 59:516-527. View Here 

Göran Berndes, Bob Abt, Antti Asikainen, Annette Cowie, Virginia Dale, Gustaf Egnell, Marcus Lindner, Luisa Marelli, David Paré, Kim Pingoud and Sonia Yeh. 2016. Forest biomass, carbon neutrality and climate change mitigation. From Science to Policy 3. European Forest Institute, Finland. Report A ThinkForest brief of the report is posted.

Kanter DR, Musumba M, Wood SLR, Palm C, Antle J, Balvanera P, Dale VH, Havlik P, Kline KL, Scholes RJ, Thornton P, Tittonell P, Andelman S. 2016. Evaluating agricultural trade-offs in the age of sustainable development. Agricultural Systems. View Here

Kline KL, Msangi S, Dale VH, Woods J, Souza G, Osseweijer P, Clancy J, Hilbert J, Mugera H, McDonnell P, Johnson F (2016) Reconciling food security and bioenergy: priorities for action. Global Change Biology Bioenergy. View Here

Langholtz, M., A. M. Coleman, L.M. Eaton, M. S. Wigmosta, Chad M. Hellwinckel, and Craig C. Brandt. 2016. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S. Renewable Energy 93:201-214. View Here

Parish ES, VH Dale, BC English, SW Jackson, DD Tyler. 2016. Assessing multimetric aspects of sustainability: Application to a bioenergy crop production system in East Tennessee. Ecosphere 7(2):e01206. 10.1002/ecs2.1206.

Pollesch N, VH Dale. 2016. Normalization in sustainability assessment: Methods and implications, Ecological Economics 130:195-208. View Here

Pollesch N. 2016. Mathematical Approaches to Sustainability Assessment and Protocol Development for the Sustainability Target Assessment Resource for Bioenergy (Bio-STAR). PhD Dissertation, Department of Mathematics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.


Dale VH, RA Efroymson, KL Kline, and M Davitt. 2015. A framework for selecting indicators of bioenergy sustainability. Biofuels, Bioproducts & Biorefining 9(4):435-446. DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1562

Dale VH, Kline KL, Marland G, Miner RA. 2015. Ecological objectives can be achieved with wood-derived bioenergy. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(6):297-299.

Efroymson RA, Dale VH. 2015. Environmental indicators for sustainable production of algal biofuels. Ecological Indicators 49:1-13. View Here

Joly CA, Huntley BJ, LM Verdade LM, Dale VH, Mace G, Muok B, Ravindranath NH. 2015. Biofuel impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. Chapter 16 in (Souza GM and Joly CA, editors) Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) Rapid Assessment Process on Bioenergy and Sustainability, Paris, France. View Here

Kang S., D. Wang, J.A. Nichols, J. Schuchart, K.L. Kline, Yaxing Wei, D.M. Ricciuto, S.D. Wullschleger, W.M. Post, R.C. Izaurralde. 2015. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 111:48–54. View Here

Kline KL, Mayer AL, Martinelli FS, Medeiros R, Oliveira COF, Sparovek G, Walter A, Venier L. 2015. Bioenergy and biodiversity: Key lessons from the Pan American region. Environmental Management 56:1377-1396.
View Here

Pollesch N, VH Dale (2015) Applications of aggregation theory to sustainability assessment. Ecological Economics 114: 117-127.

Smith, CT et al. (including Kline KL, Parish ES, and Dale VH) (2015) Mobilizing Sustainable Bioenergy Supply Chain, Inter-Task Project Synthesis Report, IEA Bioenergy ExCo:2015:04  View Here


Costanza R, K Chichakly, V Dale, S Farber, D Finnigan, K Grigg, S Heckbert, I Kubiszewski, H Lee, S Liu, P Magnuszewski, S Maynard, N McDonald, R Mills, S Ogilvy, PL Pert, J Renz, L Wainger, M Young, CR Ziegler (2014) Simulation games that integrate research, entertainment, and learning around ecosystem services. Ecosystem Services 10:195-201. View Here

Dale VH, Elless M, Johnson K, Kline K, Negri C. 2014. Incorporating Bioenergy into Sustainable Landscape Designs: Summary of a workshop held in New Bern, North Carolina, on March 4-6, 2014. View Here 

Dale B, Anderson J, Brown R, Csonka S, Dale VH, Herwick G, Jackson R, Jordan N, Kaffka S, Kline K, Lynd L, Malmstrom C, Ong R, Richard T, Taylor C, Wang M. 2014. Take a Closer Look: Biofuels Can Support Environmental, Economic and Social Goals. Environmental Science & Technology 48(13): 7200-7203.

Dale VH, Parish ES and Kline KL. 2014. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining 9(2):177-189. DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1528

Kang S, S Nair, KL Kline, JA Nichols, D Wang, WM Post, C Brandt, S Wullschleger, N Singh, and Y Wei. 2014. Global simulation of bioenergy crop productivity: analytical framework and case study for a perennial bioenergy crop – switchgrass. Global Change Biology-Bioenergy 6(1):14-24
View Here

Langholtz M, Eaton L, Turhollow A, Hilliard M. 2014. 2013 feedstock supply and price projections and sensitivity analysis. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. 8: 594-607. DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1489

Turhollow, A ., Perlack, R. , Eaton, L., Langholtz, M., Brandt, C., Downing, M., Wright, L., Skog, K., Hellwinckel, C., Stokes, B., Lebow, P. 2014. The updated billion-ton resource assessment. Biomass & Bioenergy 70:149-164. View Here 


Baskaran, L., H. Jager, A. Turhollow. Understanding shifts in agricultural landscapes: context matters when simulating future changes in water quantity and quality. ORNL TM Report – ORNL/TM-2013/531.

Dale, V. H. and K. L. Kline. 2013. Modeling for integrating science and management. Pages 209-240 In D.G. Brown, D. T. Robinson, N. H. F. French, and B.C. Reed (editors), Land Use and the Carbon Cycle: Advances in Integrated Science, Management, and Policy, Cambridge University Press.

Dale VH and KL Kline. 2013. Issues in using landscape indicators to assess land changes. Ecological Indicators 28:91-99. View Here

Dale, VH, MH Langholtz, BM Wesh, and LM Eaton. 2013. Environmental and socioeconomic indicators for bioenergy sustainability as applied to Eucalyptus. International Journal of Forestry Research Article ID 215276, 10 pages, 2013. View Here

Dale VH, RA Efroymson, KL Kline, MH Langholtz, PN Leiby, GA Oladosu, MR Davis, ME Downing, MR Hilliard. 2013. Indicators for assessing socioeconomic sustainability of bioenergy systems: A short list of practical measures. Ecological Indicators 26: 87-102. View Here

Dale VH, Kline KL, Kaffka SR, and Langeveld JWA. 2013. A landscape perspective on sustainability of agricultural systems. Landscape Ecology 28(6):1111-1123. View Here

Dale VH, KL Kline, D Perla, A Lucier. 2013. Communicating about bioenergy sustainability. Environmental Management 51(2): 279-290. View Here

Efroymson, RA, VH Dale, KL Kline, AC McBride, JM Bielicki, RL Smith, ES Parish, PE Schweizer, DM Shaw. 2013. Environmental indicators of biofuel sustainability: What about context? Environmental Management 51(2): 291-306. View Here

Johnson T, Jeff Bielicki, Rebecca Dodder, Mike Hilliard, Özge Kaplan, and Andy Miller. 2013. Stakeholder decision making along the bioenergy supply chain: Sustainability considerations and research needs. Environmental Management 51(2): 339-353.

Kline KL, Singh N, Dale VH. 2013. Cultivated hay and fallow/idle cropland confound analysis of grassland conversion in the Western Corn Belt. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(31) View Here

Parish ES, KL Kline, VH Dale, RA Efroymson, AC McBride, TL Johnson, MR Hilliard, JM Bielicki. 2013. A multi-scale comparison of environmental effects from gasoline and ethanol production. Environmental Management 51(2): 307-338. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-012-9983-6

Patton-Mallory M, KE Skog, VH Dale. 2013. Integrated forest biorefineries: Sustainability considerations for forest biomass feedstocks. In (L. Christopher, ed.) Integrated Forest Biorefineries. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, England, pp. 80-97.

Ridley, CE, HI Jager, RA Efroymson, C Kwit, DA. Landis, ZH Leggett, DA Miller, CM Clark. 2013. Debate: Can bioenergy be produced in a sustainable manner that protects biodiversity and avoids the risk of invaders? Ecological Society of America Bulletin 94(3): 277-290. DOI: 10.1890/0012-9623-94.3.277


Oladosu D., K. Kline, P. Leiby, R. Martinez, M. Davis, M. Downing, and L. Eaton. 2012. Global economic effects of the US biofuel policy and the potential contribution from advanced biofuels. Biofuels 3(6): 703-723. View Here 

Parish, ES, M Hilliard, LM Baskaran, VH Dale, NA Griffiths, PJ Mulholland, A Sorokine, NA Thomas, ME Downing, R Middleton. 2012. Multimetric spatial optimization of switchgrass plantings across a watershed. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. 6(1):58-72. DOI: 10.1002/bbb.342

Wang, G., W. M. Post, M. A. Mayes, J. T. Frerichs, and S. Jagadamma. 2012. Parameter estimation for models of ligninolytic and cellulolytic enzyme kinetics. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 48:28-38. View Here 

Wang, G., and W. M. Post. 2012. A theoretical reassessment of microbial maintenance and implications for microbial ecology modeling. FEMS Microbiology Ecology.
Wolfe, A, Downing, M, Hoagland, C. 2012. The perennial question: Farmers choices and the biofuel future. ORNL Technical Report ORNL/TM-2012/231. View Here 


Dale, VH, KL Kline, LL Wright, RD Perlack, M Downing, RL Graham. 2011. Interactions among bioenergy feedstock choices, landscape dynamics and land use. Ecological Applications 21(4):1039-1054. View Here 

Dale VH, Efroymson RA and Kline KL. 2011. The land use – climate change – energy nexus. Landscape Ecology 26(6):755-773. View Here

Dale, V.H. 2011. The role of disturbance in seasonally dry tropical forest landscapes. Pages 75-97 In W. McShea, J. S. Davies, N. Bhumpakphan (Editors) The Ecology and Conservation of Seasonally Dry Forests in Asia. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press.

Kline KL, GA Oladosu, VH Dale, and AC McBride. 2011. Scientific analysis is essential to assess biofuel policy effects: In response to the paper by Kim and Dale on“Indirect land use change for biofuels: Testing predictions and improving analytical methodologies.” Biomass and Bioenergy 35:4488-4491. View Here 

McBride, A, VH Dale, L Baskaran, M Downing, L Eaton, RA Efroymson, C Garten, KL Kline, H Jager, P Mulholland, E Parish, P Schweizer, and J Storey. 2011. Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Ecological Indicators 11(5) 1277-1289. View Here 

Oladosu G., K. Kline, R. Martinez and L. Eaton. 2011. Sources of Corn for Ethanol Production in the United States: A Review and Decomposition Analysis of the Empirical Data. Biofuels, Bioprod. Bioref. 5:640-653 View Here 

Schweizer, P. and H.I. Jager. 2011. Modeling fish diversity in the Arkansas-Red-White River Basin. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140(5): 1227-1239. View Here 


Baskaran, L., H.I. Jager, P.E. Schweizer, and R. Srinivasan. 2010. Progress toward evaluating the sustainability of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop using the SWAT model. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers 53(5): 1547-1556. View Here 

Bruins, R., S. K. Hoekman, R. Efroymson, A. Aden, A. Hecht. November 2010. Transportation fuels for the 21st Century. EM Magazine pp. 26-32. View Here 

CBES (Center for BioEnergy Sustainability, Oak Ridge National Laboratory). 2010. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy: Report from the 2009 workshop, ORNL/CBES-001, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Bioenergy Sustainability. (pdf)

Dale, VH, Kline, KL, Wiens, J, Fargione, J. 2010. Biofuels: Implications for land use and biodiversity. Biofuels and Sustainability report of the Ecological Society of America View Here

Dale, VH, R Efroymson, and K Kline. 2010. Using a broad-scale perspective to address changes in land, climate, and energy. The Climate-Energy Nexus: Proceedings of the 2009 China-US Joint Research for Ecosystem and Environmental Change, pages 52-55, published by the Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, University of Tennessee.

Dale VH, R Lowrance, P Mulholland, P Robertson. 2010. Bioenergy sustainability at the regional-scale. Ecology and Society 15(4): 23. View Here 

Jager, H. I., Baskaran, L. M., Brandt, C. C., Davis, E. B., Gunderson, C. A., and S. D. Wullschleger. 2010. Empirical geographic modeling of switchgrass yields in the United States. Glob. Change Biol. Bioenergy 2: 248-257. DOI: 10.1111/j.1757-1707.2010.01059.x

Kline KL, Dale VH, Grainger A. 2010. Challenges for Bioenergy Emission Accounting. Science e-letter. (2 March 2010) View Here

Kline, K. L. and M. D. Coleman. 2010. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: two centuries of practitioner experience. Biomass and Bioenergy 34(12): 1655-1666, ISSN 0961-9534 View Here

Oladosu G and K Kline.2010. The Role of Modeling Assumptions and Policy Instruments in Evaluating the Global Implications of U.S. Biofuel Policies. Presented at the 33rd IAEE International Conference “The Future of Energy: Global Challenges, Diverse Solutions” Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 6-9, 2010. (pdf)


Baskaran L, Jager HI, Schweizer P, Srinivasan R. 2009. Use of the SWAT model to evaluate the sustainability of switchgrass production at a national scale. 2009 International SWAT Conference Proceedings, Boulder, CO. View Here

CBES (Center for BioEnergy Sustainability, Oak Ridge National Laboratory). 2009. Land-Use Change and Bioenergy: Report from the 2009 workshop, ORNL/CBES-001, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Bioenergy Sustainability

CBES (Center for BioEnergy Sustainability, Oak Ridge National Laboratory). 2009, CBES (Center for BioEnergy Sustainability Oak Ridge National Laboratory) (2009) Sustainability of Bioenergy Systems: Cradle to Grave. Report from 2009 Workshop. ORNL/CBES-002, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for BioEnergy Sustainability. (pdf)

Dale V, K Kline, P Mulholland, M Downing, R Graham, and L Wright. 2009. “Selecting Metrics for Sustainable Bioenergy Feedstocks” in the Proceedings of the Second Workshop. Beijing, October 15-17, 2008, China-US Joint Research for Ecosystem and Environmental Change, pages 49-53, published by the Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, University of Tennessee. View Here

Hecht, AD, D Shaw, R Bruins, V Dale, K Kline, A Chen. 2009. Good policy follows good science: Using criteria and indicators for assessing sustainable biofuels production. Ecotoxicology 18(1):1-4. View Here 

Kline KL, VH Dale, R Lee, and P. Leiby. 2009. In Defense of Biofuels, Done Right. Issues in Science and Technology 25(3): 75-84 View Here 


Kline, KL and Dale, VH. 2008. Biofuels, causes of land-use change, and the role of fire in greenhouse gas emissions. Science 321:199.

Robertson, GP, VH Dale, OC Doering, SP Hamburg, JM Melillo, MM Wander, WJ Parton, PR Adler, JN Barney, RM Cruse, CS Duke, PM Fearnside, RF Follett, HK Gibbs, J Goldemberg, DJ Mladenoff, D Ojima, MW Palmer, A Sharpley, L Wallace, KC Weathers, JA Wiens, and WW Wilhelm. 2008. Sustainable Biofuels Redux, Science 322(5898): 49–50. DOI: 10.1126/science.1161525.